Electron microscopy
 
Degradation/Failure in Ferroelectrics
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -
Microanalysis | EM Book                                                                                   http://www.globalsino.com/EM/        

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One typical failure of ferroelectrics in fatigue and aging processes is the degradation of switchable spontaneous polarization. There are several degradation mechanisms such as internal bias field, domain wall pinning, dead layers near the electrodes, and mechanical degradation. Those mechanisms can be induced, for instance, by the most common point defects, i.e. oxygen vacancies, which can originate from extrinsic doping and nonstoichiometry.

 

 

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