TEM Imaging on Biological Materials
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Due to high spatial resolution (e.g. a few nanometres) in biological specimen, TEM allows direct observation of cellular compounds and organelles, cytoskeletal elements, single synaptic vesicles, ribosomes and even protein complexes.

TEM images of thin biological, frozen-hydrated specimens must be recorded with a substantial degree of defocus in order to generate adequate contrast at low spatial frequencies.

In tilt electron tomography, due to the strong interaction of the electron beam with the specimen, bright-field TEM imaging is mainly used in biological tomography but is in general inapplicable to the study of crystalline materials because the diffraction contrast and Fresnel fringes do not satisfy the projection requirement and can lead to serious artifacts in reconstructions. On the other hand, the HAADF (high-angle annular dark-field) STEM imaging offers an excellent alternative due to its Z-contrast.




The book author (Yougui Liao) welcomes your comments, suggestions, and corrections, please click here for submission. If you let book author know once you have cited this book, the brief information of your publication will appear on the “Times Cited” page.