Outer d Shell Electrons
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Figure 2866 shows the plasmon and low-energy core-loss peaks of yttrium (Y) and palladium (Pd). For the case of Y, the plasmon and core-loss peak can well be separated by spectra fitting with a polynomial function, while for the case of Pd with completed d shells its plasmon peak (~8 eV) is accompanied by a number of other features and their separation can hardly be achieved unambiguously. Those features of Pd probably correspond to different excitations of the composite outer shell consisting of different 4d+5s+5p electronic configurations [1]. Therefore, this interpretation suggests that the number of valence electrons per atom involved in plasmon scattering is larger than number of electrons taking part in chemical reactions.

plasmon and low-energy core-loss peaks of yttrium (Y) and palladium (Pd)

Figure 2866. Two representative examples (for Y and Pd) of separating the plasmon and low-energy core-loss contributions in the EEL spectra. [1]





[1] Konstantin Iakoubovskii, Kazutaka Mitsuishi,Yoshiko Nakayama, and Kazuo Furuya, Mean free path of inelastic electron scattering in elemental solids and oxides using transmission electron microscopy: Atomic number dependent oscillatory behavior, Physical Review B 77, 104102 (2008).




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