Carbon
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -


http://www.globalsino.com/EM/  


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.

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Carbons present various crystallographic structures involving amorphous, noncrystalline, and crystalline forms because of its various bonding states. For instance, noncrystalline forms can have pure sp1, sp2 and sp3 bonding, modified bonding (deformed from a bonding state) or combined bonding (i.e. more than two bonding states are included), because there is less constraint compared with a structure with long-range order.

Table 3167. Properties of some carbon-based materials.

 
Crystalline diamond
C60 fullerene
Graphene

Graphite

Single-wall carbon
nanotube (SWCNT)

Glassy C

Evaporated C

Sputtered C

Tetrahedral amorphous C

Tetrahedral amorphous C:H

a-C:H hard

a-C:H soft

Polyethylene
Crystal structure
Crystalline diamond C60 fullerene Graphene   Single-wall carbon
Zig-zag structure
Armchair structure
               
Raman spectra
Diamond                        
Band gap (eV)
5.5 1.6 - 4.5   0   0.01 0.4-0.7 0.5 2.5   1.1-1.7 1.7-4 6
sp3 (%)
100 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 80-88   40 60 100
H (%)
0 0   0   0 0 0 0   30-40 40-50 67
Density (g•cm-3)
3.515     2.267   1.3-1.55 1.9 2.2 3.1   1.6-2.2 1.2-1.6 0.92
Hardness (GPa)
100         3 3   80   10-20 <10 0.01
Band structure & density of states
        armchair nanotube                
Excitation of interband transition
  Γ point, but not X and L points                      

 

 

 

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