Electron microscopy
Heating Temperature of Electron Guns
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -
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This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


With increase of bias voltage in thermionic emission guns, the emission current increases and the heating temperature necessary for emission saturation becomes higher. On the other hand, with increase of heating temperature, the emission current also increases, the energy spread of emitted electrons becomes wider, and the lifetime of the filament becomes shorter.



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