Vacuum Sealed Electron Transparent Windows for In-Situ TEM
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For the in-situ TEM experiments based on gas-solid or gas-liquid interactions, the gas or liquid needs to be confined to the sample area in order to protect the column vacuum of TEM. The modified part, used to confine the gas or liquid, is known as environmental cell (E-cell), which can be achieved mainly by two methods:
Figure 3276 shows the schematic illustration of window technique with a pair of electron transparent windows that are placed above and below the TEM sample. In this system, the sample and its surrounding gas/liquid are completely sealed off from the TEM column so that the pressure/vacuum of the TEM stays constant. However, sufficiently strong (e.g. thick) window/film is needed to resist the pressure difference between the cell and TEM column. The disadvantages of this system are:
Even thought the disadvantages above exist, this method is still the only choice for liquid environment and liquid chemical interaction research.
Figure 3276. Schematic illustration of window technique.
 P. Butler and K. Hale, In Situ Gas-Solid Reactions, Practical Methods in Electron
Microscopy, Experimental Microscopy (North Holland Co., 1981), pp. 239 and 309.
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