Atomic-number Contrast of Lanthanum Ions
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In HAADF Z (atomic-number)-contrast imaging mode, the intensity of electron scattering by the atoms depends on the atomic number Z. For the superlattice structure consisting of LaTiO3 and SrTiO3 layers, the brightest features are columns of La ions, the second brightest features are columns of Sr ions, and the Ti ions are weakly visible in between the LaTiO3 and SrTiO3 layers as shown in Figure 3516. The oxygen ions are not visible due to the much lower atomic number. Note that the number of the LaTiO3 and SrTiO3 layers is determined by the deposition recipe.

[100] Zone Axis of Perovskite Structures

Figure 3516. HAADF image of superlattice structures consisting of LaTiO3 and SrTiO3 layers. The imaging optical axis is the [100] zone axis of the crystals. Adapted from [1].

 

 

 

[1] A. Ohtomo, D. A. Muller, J. L. Grazul and H. Y. Hwang, Artificial charge-modulation in atomic-scale perovskite titanate superlattices, Nature 419, 378-380.

 

 

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