This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.
In applications of electron image series reconstruction with TEM there are many different weak phase object methods, such as parabaloid method, Wiener filter method  and iterative wave function reconstruction . Some have been developed into commercial applications. In many characteristics, these different approaches are equivalent. However, the Wiener filter method has more advantages than the others because different from iterative wave function reconstruction it is not an iterative method, and compared with the parabaloid method it is more flexible and better at low spatial frequencies. Furthermore, the Wiener filter method can be used on tilt series and unevenly spaced focus series.
In the Wiener filter method, the Fourier transform of the image contrast for each image in the in focus or tilt series is weighted by a filter function, ri. Therefore, the object wave function can be given by,
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