This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.
The spherical aberration coefficient of EMs can be determined by Krivanek model , statistic method , and electron-beam-tilt technique . An efficient way for processing the Cs determinations has recently been performed by slow scan charge-coupled device (SSCCD) camera system.
 Krivanek, O. L., A method for determing the coefficient of spherical aberration from a single electron micrograph, Optik, 1976, 45(1): 97.
 Coene, W. M. J., Deneteneer, T. J. J., Improved methods for the determination of the spherical aberration coefficient in high-resolution electron microscopy from micrographs of an amorphous object, Ultramicroscopy, 1991, 38, 225.
 Koster, A. J., de Jong, A. J., Measurement of the spherical aberration coefficient of transmission electron microscopes by beam-tilt-induced image displacements, Ultramicroscopy, 1991, 38, 235