Refraction Effect of Secondary Electrons
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -

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 This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers. ================================================================================= This refraction effect of secondary electrons (SEs) is given by [1],                  --------------------------------------------------- [4828a]  Here,        β -- the inner angle of incident electrons into the sample                  α -- the corresponding emission angle into the vacuum.                  Es -- the SE kinetic energy into the specimen                  Ek -- the corresponding kinetic energy into the vacuum Based on Equation 4828a, Figure 4828 shows the schematic of angular SE transmission function, T(α), at the specimen/vacuum (S/V) interface in polar co-ordinates when the specimen is a metal, a semiconductor and an insulator. Figure 4828. Schematic of angular SE transmission function, T(α), at the specimen/vacuum (S/V) interface in polar co-ordinates when the specimen is a metal, a semiconductor and an insulator. The Lambert-type emission is also schematically shown for comparison. Adapted from [2] The SE kinetic energy into the specimen, Es, is given by                  Es = Ek+ EF + Φ (for a metal) -----------------------------------------------[4828b]                  Es = Ek+ χ (for a semiconductor or an insulator) ----------------------------[4828c]  Here,       EF -- Fermi energy                 Φ - - Work function                 The sum EF (Fermi energy) and Φ (Work function) for metals is often of ~10 eV.                 Electron affinity, χ, for insulators is generally less than 3 eV.   [1] Henke, B.L., Liesegang, J. & Smith, S.D. (1979) Soft X-ray induced secondary electron emission from semiconductors and insulators. Phys. Rev. B, 19, 3004–3021. [2] J. Cazaux, (2005) Recent developments and new strategies in scanning electron microscopy, Journal of Microscopy, 217, 16–35.

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