Electron microscopy
Ionic Migration due to Sample Surface Charging
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Mobile ions in materials can migrate in electrical fields, which are established by SEM beam due to charging effects. The migration can occur:
        i) at sample surfaces,
        ii) underneath the surfaces, e.g. below coated metallic layer.

Ionic migration effect at charged surfaces of insulator samples in electron microscopy measurements has been explained with Cazaux model [1]. If the surface charges negatively, positive ions will migrate toward the surface.

Jbara et al. [2] established a simple model to explain the anion migration, underneath metallic coated surfaces, driven by the electrostatic field induced by SEM beam.

Table 1159. Migration observation in SEM measurements.

Materials Migrated ions Material property Proposed migration mechanism Reference
CaF2 F-, Ca2+ Glass Electrostatic force [2]
K2O-SrO-SiO2   Glass Electrostatic force [4]
Na2O Na+, O2- Glass Electrostatic force [3]

If the migration of charged ions originates from electrostatic force, then the velocity of ions can be given by,
         V = µE ------------------------- [1159]
         µ -- the mobility of the ions,
         E -- the electric field.

In this case, the electric field applied to a conductor will exert a force on the activated positve ion in the direction opposite to the electron flow. Note that such electrostatic force exists, no matter if there is an electrical current, as far as there is an electrical potential gradient.

On the other hand, in electromigration process, the rate of momentum exchange between the conducting electrons colliding with the activated metal ions will exert a force on the ions in the direction of electron flow.



















[1] J. Cazaux, Some considerations on the electric field induced in insulators by electron bombardment, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 1418 (1986).
[2] O. Jbara, J. Cazaux, G. Remond and C. Gilles, Halogen ion electric field assisted diffusion in fluorite and polyvinyl chloride during electron irradiation, J. Appl. Phys. 79 (5), 1, 2309 (1996).
[3] J. L. Lineweaver, Oxygen Outgassing Caused by Electron Bombardment of Glass, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1786 (1963).
[4] M. P. Borom and R. E. Hanneman, Local Compositional Changes in Alkali Silicate Glasses during Electron Microprobe Analysis, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2406, (1967).