Microwave Semiconductor Devices
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Table 1319. Microwave semiconductor devices.

Device Operating frequency Bandwidth Power output Efficiency Noise figure Operational principle
Backward diode           Tunneling in reverse-biased junction or near zero bias, high nonlinearity
BARITT diode 4-8 GHz Narrow Low (mW) Low (2%) Less noisy than MPATT (<15 dB) Barrier injection and transit-time effects
Bipolar transistor           Electrons and holes participate in transport processes
Gunn diode

1-100 GHz

2% of centre frequency A few watts (CW), 100 - 200 W (Pulsed)      
IMPATT diode

0.5-100 GHz

One-tenth of centre frequency 1W (CW), 400 W pulsed 3% CW, 60% pulsed High, 30 dB Avalanche and transit-time effects to generate high power
JFET           Majority carrier, current modulated by junction-gate bias
MESFET           Majority carrier, current modulated by Schottky-gate bias
MOSFET           Minority-carrier transport in surface inversion channel
p-i-n diode           Nearly constant capacitance, high breakdown voltage
Point-contact diode           Small area, small capacitance
Schottky diode           Majority-carrier transport, thermionic injection
TED           Electrons transferred from low-energy high-mobility band to high-energy low-mobility band
TRAPATT diode 1-10 GHz   Several 100 W (pulsed) 20-60% pulsed High, 60 dB Trapped plasmas avalanche triggered transit diode
Tunnel diode           Tunneling in forward-biased p*n* junction, negative differential resistance
Varactor diode           Reactance varies with bias voltage