Gibbs Free Energy Change due to Alloy Formation
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As an example, assuming Ti (titanium) film is first deposited on a Si substrate, the free energy of the system will change if the Ti atoms react with the Si atoms to form titanium silicide (TiSi2) film. To form a TiSi2 layer in thickness t, 0.4t of the Ti film and 0.9t of the Si substrate need to be consumed. Therefore the free energy change ΔG to form the TiSi2 layer is,
          ΔG = A [(G0TiSi2 - 0.4G0Ti - 0.9G0Si)t + γTiSi2+ γTiSi2/Si - γSi] = AΔγ ----------------------------- [145]
          G0TiSi2 -- The volume term of TiSi2,
          G0Ti -- The volume term of Ti,
          G0Si -- The volume term of Si,
          Δγ -- The surface/interface term of the Gibbs free energy change,
          γSi -- The Si substrate surface energy,
          γTiSi2/Si -- The TiSi2/Si interface energy
          γTiSi2 -- The TiSi2 surface energy.




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