Free Volume Determination in Metallic Glasses
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Free volume can be been determined by using various techniques such as positron annihilation, [1] direct density measurement, [2] TEM and SEM, [3] fluctuation electron microscopy, [4] and so on.





[1] K. M. Flores, D. Suh, P. Asoka-Kumar, P. A. Sterne, R. Howell and R. H. Dauskardt: J. Mat. Res. 17 (2002) 1153.
[2] C. Nagel, K. Ra¨tzke, E. Schmidtke, J. Wolff, U. Geyer and F. Faupel: Phys. Rev. B 57 (1998) 10224.
[3] C. A. Pampillo: J. Mat. Sci. 10 (1975) 1194.
[4] J. Li, X. Gu X and T. C. Hufnagel: J. Microscopy and Microanalysis 9 (2002) 509.




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