Autofocus Methods in TEM Imaging
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


One of the most commonly used autofocus methods in TEM is based on a beam-tilt induced image displacement [1]. This method is especially applied for life-sciences.



[1] A.J. Koster, A. van den Bos, K. van der Mast, An autofocus method for a TEM, Ultramicroscopy 21 (3) (1987) 209–222.




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