Short Circuit Failure due to Electromigration in ICs
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Electromigration in Al can occur under the influence of an electric field in ICs. The electromigration induces voids, resulting in discontinuities, in the metallization runners, that causes circuit opening and/or pileups that can cause short circuit failure to adjacent conductors. The electromigration resistance of Al can be increased by alloying with copper at low concentrations, e.g. ~ 0.5%.




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