Ternary Tungsten Oxides
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Ternary tungsten oxide systems can be categorized by two groups: i) reduced, non-stoichiometric tungsten bronzes and ii) fully oxidized insulating phases [1, 2]. Bronzes form when WO3 is reduced, normally by exposure to the vapor of a guest or “impurity” metal. There are several possible resulting bronze structures involving either square [3], pentagonal [4], or hexagonal [5, 6] tunnels.







[1] L. Bartha, A. B. Kiss, and T. Szalay, Int. J. Refractory Metals Hard Mater. 13, 77}91 (1995).
[2] R. D. J. Tilley, Int. J. Refractory Metals Hard Mater 13, 93}109 (1995).
[3] G. Hägg, Nature 135, 847 (1935); Z. Phys. Chem. B 29, 192 (1935).
[4] A. Magnéli, Ark. Kemi 1, 213 (1949).
[5] A. Magnéli, Acta Chem. Scand. 7, 315}324 (1953).
[6] A. Hussain and L. Kihlborg, Acta Crystallogr. A 32, 551 (1976).




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