Electron microscopy
Magnesium Oxide (MgO)
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Table 2363a. Properties of MgO.

Density (g-cm-3)
Atomic Volume (m3/kmol) 
5.7 x 10-3
Energy Content (MJ/kg)

Specific heat (cp, Jkg-1K-1)

880 - 1030

Melting temperature (Tm, °C)

Thermal Expansion (10-6/K)
9 - 12
Dielectric Constant
7 - 9
Elastic Limit (MPa)
83 - 166
Compressive Strength (MPa)
833 - 1666
Bulk Modulus (GPa)

Surface free energy (ergs/cm2)

1100 at 25 °C

The cubic phase of ZrO2 is not thermodynamically stable. In practical applications, to stabilize the crystal structures, a small amount of stabilizers  (divalent or trivalent oxides of cubic symmetry) such as MgO, CaO, Y2O3, CeO2, Sc2O3 or Yb2O3 need to be added to stabilize the ZrO2 to the cubic phase.

As listed in Table 2363b, substances with large bonding energies usually have high melting temperatures.

Table 2363b. Bonding energies and melting temperatures of ionic substances.

Bonding type

Bonding energy
Melting point (°C)
kJ/mol kcal/mol eV/Atom, Ion, or Molecule
Typical value 50-1000      
NaCl 640 153 3.3 801
MgO 1000 239 5.2 2800






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