Theoretical Interpretation of STEM/TEM Images about Crystalline Defects
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


In STEM analysis, the effect of the beam–specimen interaction in modifying the probe wave function into the sample exit wave function can be modeled using either the Bloch wave approach [1,2] or a multislice approach. [3,4] In the Bloch waves approach, [1,2] one employs the fact that the eigenfunctions of electrons inside a crystalline solid are in the form of Bloch waves. Therefore, the modeling of the beam–sample interaction is converted into a problem of wave function matching at the entrance surface and at the exit surface. Such an approach is very useful for the interpretation of the HAADF-STEM images taken from perfect periodic structures, but is not applicable to accurately predict the HAADF-STEM images of real specimens because it cannot be easily applied to defects or surfaces.




[1] Nellist P, Pennycook SJ. Ultramicroscopy 1999;78:111–24.
[2] Peng Y, Nellist PD, Pennycook SJ. J Electron Microsc 2004;53:257–66.
[3] Kirkland EJ, Loane RF, Silcox J. Ultramicroscopy 1987;23:77–96.
[4] Cowley JM, Moodie AF. Acta Crystallogr 1957;10:609–19.




The book author (Yougui Liao) welcomes your comments, suggestions, and corrections, please click here for submission. If you let book author know once you have cited this book, the brief information of your publication will appear on the “Times Cited” page.