Theory for Simulating and Reconstructing Electron Holograms
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Various theories have been used to simulate and reconstruct electron holograms:
         i) The Fresnel–Kirchhoff theory of diffraction was applied to study in-line holography [1],
         ii) The Green’s function [2 - 4],
         iii) The Kirchhoff–Helmholtz integral [5,6],
         iv) Other methods [7,8].

Note that the reconstruction of electron holograms can be performed by more or less straightforward formulas [2,5,9,10], however, the reconstruction of simple diffractograms (where the scattered wave does not interfere with the reference wave) often includes iterative procedures and an initial guess of the object function [11,12].





[1] Lucian Livadaru, Josh Mutus, Robert A. Wolkow, In-line holographic electron microscopy in the presence of external magnetic fields, Ultramicroscopy 108 (2008) 472–480.
[2] H.J. Kreuzer, K. Nakamura, A. Wierzbicki, H.W. Fink, H. Schmid, Ultramicroscopy 45 (1992) 381.
[3] H.W. Fink, H. Schmid, H.J. Kreuzer, A. Wierzbicki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67 (1991) 1543. 
[4] A. Mayer, J.P. Vigneron, Phys. Rev. B 56 (1997) 12599. 
[5] J.J. Barton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61 (1988) 1356.
[6] K. Saldin, P.L. de Andres, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64 (1990) 1270. 
[7] T.A. Rothwell, M.R.A. Shegelski, Micron 36 (2004) 31.
[8] J. Bardon, V. Georges, A. Degiovanni, R. Morin, Micron 33 (2002) 493. 
[9] J.A. Lin, J.M. Cowley, Ultramicroscopy 19 (1986) 179.
[10] J.M. Cowley, Surf. Sci. 298 (1993) 336. 
[11] J.C.H. Spence, U. Weierstall, M. Howells, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 360 (2002) 875.
[12] J.M. Zuo, I. Vartanyants, M. Gao, R. Zhang, L.A. Nagahara, Science 300 (2003) 1419. 




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