Electrons/Holes Mobility & Current versus Strain in Materials
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


In semiconductor industry, strain engineering has become an effective way to increase electrons/holes mobility and thus the drive current of the devices. The mobility enhancement originates from the reduction of the effective mass of charge carriers and the decrease of the phonon scattering rate because of the change of energy band structure induced  by the strain [1]. The resulting drive current for pMOS and nMOS transistors can be enhanced by ~ 4.5 times and ~ 2 times, respectively [2, 3].





[1] M. Chu, Y. K. Sun, U. Aghoram, and S. E. Thompson, “Strain: A solution for higher carrier mobility in nanoscale MOSFETs”, Annual Review of Materials Research, vol 39, pp. 203-239, 2009.
[2] G. Sun, Y. Sun, T. Nishida, and S. E. Thompson, “Hole mobility in silicon inversion layers: stress and surface orientation, Journal of Applied Physics, vol 102, pp. 084501-7, 2007.
[3] S. Suthram, J. C. Ziegert, T. Nishida, and S. E. Thompson, “Piezoresistance coefficients of (100) silicon nMOSFETs measured at low and high (~ 1.5GPa) channel stress”, IEEE Electron Devices Letters, vol 28, pp. 58-61, 2007.




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