Electron Properties
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Some properties of electrons facilitates their application to imaging in electron microscopes (EMs):
        i) Due to their negative charge, electrons can be manipulated by a magnetic field generated in electromagnetic lenses and can be accelerated through a voltage differential;
        ii) Due to their small mass, the electrons can penetrate through thin specimens, and may be deflected by air particles so that high vacuum is needed in EM columns;
        iii) The shorter wavelength of high-energy electrons provides enhanced resolution over optical microscopes (e.g. λ ~ 550 nm);
        iv) The electron particles can be deflected by heavy atoms in TEM specimens so that atomic contrast can be obtained;
        v) However, the electrons cannot be directly detected by human eyes so that electron images must be converted to phosphorescent screen or recorded by CCD or on photographic emulsions.




The book author (Yougui Liao) welcomes your comments, suggestions, and corrections, please click here for submission. If you let book author know once you have cited this book, the brief information of your publication will appear on the “Times Cited” page.