Contact Failure in ICs
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


In semiconductor industry, electron beam (EB) observation in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is important to detect the hidden defects causing electrical failure such as contact failure, under-layer electric short, and leakages using voltage contrast [1-4].



[1] M. Nozoe, H. Nishiyama, H. Shinada, and M. Tanaka, “New Voltage Contrast Imaging Method for Detection of Electrical Failures,” Proceedings of SPIE, Vol.3998, pp.599-606, 2000.
[2] M. Matsui, C. Zhaohui, M. Nozoe, and K. Torii, “Detecting Defects in Cu Metallization Structures by Electron-Beam Wafer Inspection,” Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol.151, pp.G440-G442, 2004.
[3] I. De, K. Shadman, and G. Zapalac, “Investigation of Detection Limits of Resistive Contact Plugs in Electron Beam Inspection Using Modeling and Simulation,” IEEE Transactions on semiconductor manufacturing, Vol.20, pp.0894-6507, 2007.
[4] K. Shadman and I. De, “Analytic models for the kinetics of generating a voltage contrast signal from contact plugs used in integrated circuits,” J. App.Phys., Vol.101, pp.064913, 2007.




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