Electron microscopy
Pumps for High and Ultra-high Vacuums
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -
Microanalysis | EM Book                                                                                   https://www.globalsino.com/EM/        

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


At high and ultra-high vacuums, the use of oil-pumps is risky due to the possibilities of back streaming and contamination of the system. Therefore, almost all the pumps for the such vacuums do not contain any type of lubricants. There are two main high vacuum pumps:
        i) Turbomolecular pump.
        ii) Cryopump.
Both pumps are oil free.



The book author (Yougui Liao) welcomes your comments, suggestions, and corrections, please click here for submission. If you let book author know once you have cited this book, the brief information of your publication will appear on the “Times Cited” page.