Electron microscopy
Ice Formation in EM Observations
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -
Microanalysis | EM Book                                                                                   https://www.globalsino.com/EM/        

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Specimen cooling is one of the efficient common methods to reduce or even eliminate specimen contamination in TEM analysis. In this way, the mobility of the offending species is suppressed. However, specimen cooling causes some problems:
        i) Ice may form on the specimen. To avoid the ice formation, intermediate temperatures from -130 to 50 °C can be used.
        ii) Specimen drift.



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