Dipole Transitions in Electron Excitations
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Fine structures in an EEL spectrum originate from the transition from a core level to unoccupied states under the dipole selection rule. For instance, for 3d transition metals and their alloys, L2,3 edges of EELS are characterized by two sharp peaks, called “white lines”. These white lines are induced by the excitations of 2p1/2 and 2p3/2 core electrons to unoccupied d-like states near the Fermi level (dipole transitions).




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