Compton Scattering of Electrons
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The Compton scattering is a relativistic scattering of a photon by a free electron and is incoherent and inelastic. There are degrees of freedom in each scattering event associated with the atomic electron, and thus the Compton scattering of an X-ray is incoherent.

The measured X-ray line shape P(E) as a function of the analyzed photon energy E, can be given by the Hyperment function,
         P(E) = S(E) + D(E) + G(E) ------------------- [3816]
         S(E) -- The Compton scattering of the photons within the detector.
         D(E) -- The incomplete charge collection in the dead layer of the detector.
         G(E) -- The major Gaussian peak.

Table 3816 shows that electrons interact with 1 electron, many electrons, 1 nucleus, and many nuclei in solids.

Table 3816. Effects of interactions of electrons in solids.
  Interaction with electron(s) Interaction with nucleus/nuclei
  1 electron Many electrons 1 nucleus Many nuclei
Scattering type Inelastic Inelastic Quasi-elastic Elastic Inelastic
Scattering effect Electron Compton effect; electron excitation (from 50 eV to a few keV: EDS and EELS) Plasmon excitation (< 50 eV, ~100 nm TEM specimen); Cerenkov effect Rutherford scattering; phonon scattering (< 1 eV, heat) Bragg scattering Bremsstrahlung

Note that the Compton scattering generates a background intensity in X-ray diffraction patterns.