Active Voltage Contrast (AVC) in FIB and SEM
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.



Similar to passive voltage contrast (PVC) method, active voltage contrast (AVC) method for failure localization on semiconductor circuits  is also based on contrast difference in FIB or SEM images of more or less electrically conducting structures in the circuits. However, in AVC method, an external bias is applied to a specific structure so that the contrast difference is more pronounced. Comparing with PVC, the key advantage of the AVC is that it can detect opens and shorts as well as the failures caused by an increased resistance of conductors or contacts.





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