
Noise Reduction by Binning in CCD Camera
 Practical Electron Microscopy and Database 
 An Online Book 

https://www.globalsino.com/EM/

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.

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The noise sources in a CCD camera can be categorized by the two groups: i) Integration time dependent noises and ii) Readout noise. A significant advantage of binning is that the noise can be reduced by combining charges from adjacent pixels into a single storage well. According to the theory of uncertainty propagation, which assumes that the inherent noise in a constituent pixel is independent of the noises presented in any other pixels, for a set of n × m binned pixels (shown in Figure 3963), the overall amount of the noise in the binned pixel becomes (n x m)^{0.5} times larger than the noise of each constituent pixel. However, since the exposure time must be decreased by n × m times to avoid CCD saturation, the net noise in the super pixels will be decreased to (n x m)^{0.5}, namely (n x m)^{0.5}/(n x m)^{}. Therefore, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) can be improved significantly.
Figure 3963. Schematic representation of n × m binning mode. A small red square here
represents an original pixel before binning and the blue region represents a pixel after binning.

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