This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.
Electron channeling occurs if the incident beam is parallel to the atom columns of a crystal or a particular crystal defect. In a simplified channeling theory, an expression for the exit wave of a single atom column is expressed as [1 - 3],
r -- A two-dimensional (2-D) vector in the plane at the exit face of the crystal ( = (x,y)T ), which is perpendicular to the incident beam direction
z -- The crystal thickness
C1s -- The excitation coefficient for plane wave incidence ()
E0 -- The incident electron energy
λ -- The electron wavelength
Φ1s(r) -- The lowest energy bound state of the atom column
E1s -- The energy of the lowest energy bound state
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 P. Geuens, D. VanDyck, The S-state model: a work horse for HRTEM, Ultramicroscopy 93 (2002) 179–198.
 S. Van Aert, P. Geuens, D. Van Dyck, C. Kisielowski, J. R. Jinschek, Ultramicroscopy 107 (2007) 551–558.