Maxwell’s Equations
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  


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The laws of classical electromagnetics can be summarized into a concise collection called Maxwell's equations.

In point form, the first of Maxwell’s equations, called Gauss’ law (electric), is a similar expression for the electric field  electric field, but its divergence is not zero,

           first of Maxwell’s equations, called Gauss’ law (electric) ----------------------- [4285a]

           ρ -- Charge
           ε0 -- Permittivity of of vacuum, 8.854 × 10−12 farad/m

The second of Maxwell’s equations, called Gauss’ law (magnetic), comes directly out of the quantum mechanical description, given by,

            second of Maxwell’s equations, Gauss’ law (magnetic) ----------------------- [4285b]

            magnetic field -- Magnetic field

The third of Maxwell’s equations, called Faraday’s law, is given by,

            third of Maxwell’s equations, Faraday’s law----------------------- [4285c]

The fourth of Maxwell’s equations, called Ampère-Maxwell law, is a similar expression for the curl of the magnetic field, given by,

            fourth of Maxwell’s equations, Ampère-Maxwell law----------------------- [4285d]

            c -- ligh speed in vacuum = 3 × 108 m/s (the speed of light)
            µ0 -- permeability of vacuum, 4π × 10−7 henry/m




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