Low Electron Beam Current Density to
Minimize Specimen Damage in EELS Measurements
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -



This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.



In EELS measurements, the electron beam current density should be low enough to minimize the beam damage on the materials while still producing a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. For instance, to minimize the electron-beam-induced chemical reduction of Mn4+ in Mn-containing minerals [1], the data acquisition can be done by spreading the electron beam for a low irradiation rate, e.g. smaller than 2 × 104 e/nm2/s. At this condition, the acquisition time for each spectrum can be relatively long, e.g. 8–10 s. If the counts for a single spectrum are not sufficient to produce pronounced sharp peaks, a series of spectra should be summed to improve counting statistics such that the integrated dose for each accumulated spectrum is more than 2 × 106 e/nm2.





[1] Garvie, L.A.J. and Craven, A.J., (1994) Electron-beam-induced reduction of Mn4+ in manganese oxides as revealed by parallel EELS. Ultramicroscopy, 54, 83–92.



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