Contamination Reduction in EM Vacuum
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers. How to Cite This Book



Contamination in EM vacuum systems can be reduced by cool-traps, by chemical purging, by using cleaner pumps, by plasma cleaning [1], or by liquid nitrogen-cooled anti-contamination device (ACD) [2].


[1] Vane R., Carlino V. Microscopy and microanalysis (2005) Honolulu, Abstract 233.
[2] Vladár, A. E. et al. Proc. SPIE 4344 (2001), p. 835.



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