Wavelength/Energy of X-Ray "Particles" (Photons)
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -



This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.



The energy of X-ray “particles” (photons) is hν. Here, h is Planck’s constant and ν is the frequency.  The X-ray energy in eV is given by,

              X-ray energy equation ----------------------- [4484a]

The X-ray wavelength, λ, is given by,

              X-ray energy equation ------------------------------ [4484b]

where λ is in nm and E in keV. As we can see, this equation is similar to the equation giving the uncorrected electron energy in vacuum.

It is very common that Cu X-ray lines are applied to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The X-ray wavelengths (λ) of Cu Kα1 and Cu Kα2 are 1.540598 Å and 1.544426 Å, respectively. The average wavelength of Cu Kα is 1.54278 Å.



The book author (Yougui Liao) welcomes your comments, suggestions, and corrections, please click here for submission. If you let book author know once you have cited this book, the brief information of your publication will appear on the “Times Cited” page.