Chemical Changes Induced by Ion Beam Irradiation
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.



Researchers have studied chemical changes induced by ion beam irradiation. These changes can be formation of intermetallic compounds, or chemically modified surface layers made up of both target and projectile species. Intermetallic phase formation has been well established and understood in materials combinations as in Al implantation into Ni, Ni into Al, Eu into stainless steel, Si into Ni, Co into Si, and Ga in to Cu, Au, and W [1 - 8].


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[2] Teichert, J., Bischoff, L. & Hausmann, S. (1998). Ion beam synthesis of cobalt disilicide using focused ion beam implantation. J Vac Sci Technol B 16, 2574–2577.
[3] Cuenat, A., Hessler-Wyser, A., Dobeli, M. & Gotthardt, R. (2001). Spontaneous crystalline multilayer formation in Ni implanted with Al at 100K. Mat Res Soc Proc 647, 7.2.1–7.2.6.
[4] Casey, J.D., Phaneuf, M.W., Chandler, C., Megorden, M., Noll, K.E., Schuman, R.J., Krechmer, A., Monforte, D., Antonniou, N., Bassom, N., Li, J., Carleson, P. & Huynh, C.J. (2002). Copper device editing: Strategy for focused ion beam milling of copper. Vac Sci Technol B 20, 2682–2685.
[5] Kozlov, E.V., Ryabchikov, A.I., Sharkeev, Y.P, Stepanov, I.B., Fortuna, S.V., Sivin, D.O., Kurzina, I.A., Prokopova, T.S. & Melnik, I.A. (2002). Formation of intermetallic-layers at high intensity ion implantation. Surf Coat Technol 158–159, 343–348.
[6] Phaneuf, M.W., Li, J. & Casey, J.D. (2002). Gallium phase formation in Cu and other FCC metals during near normal incidence Ga-FIB milling and techniques to avoid this phenomenon. Microsc Microanal 8, 52–53.
[7] Stahl, B., Kankeleit, E. & Walter, G. (2003). Implantation induced phase formationin stainless steel. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res 211, 227–238.
[8] Michael, J. R., (2011) Focused Ion Beam Induced Microstructural Alterations: Texture Development, Grain Growth, and Intermetallic Formation Microsc. Microanal. 17, 386–397.



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