4p Elements in Periodic Table
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -



This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.




Table 4700a. 4p elements in periodic table

1S 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p 3d 3d 4d 5d 6d 4f 5f Elements Structure of the periodic table


Table 4700b. Electron configurations, filling orbitals, and valence electrons of 4p elements

Atomic Number Symbol Name Electron Configuration Filling Orbital Valence Electrons
31 Ga Gallium  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p1  4p1  4s2p1 
32 Ge Germanium  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p2 4p2  4s2p2
33 As Arsenic  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p3 4p3  4s2p3
34 Se Selenium  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p4 4p4 4s2p4
35 Br Bromine  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p5 4p5 4s2p5
36 Kr Krypton  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6 4p6 4s2p6

Figure 4700 shows the relation between electron binding energies and atomic number (Z).

Relation between electron binding energies and atomic number (Z)

Figure 4700. Relation between electron binding energies and atomic number (Z) (at low binding energies).






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