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A scintillator is used to converte the incoming electron signal, which is from column of electron microscope, to visible light that is amplified by a photomultiplier (PM) tube as shown in Figure 4868. The dynodes form electron nultiplier. This system, that acts as a high-sensitivity and low-noise photon detector, is used to detect secondary electrons in SEM, transmitted, diffracted, and energy loss electrons in TEM, and primary scattered electrons in STEM.

Schematic of photomultiplier (PM) system

Figure 4868. Schematic of photomultiplier (PM) system

Photomultiplier modules (PMTs) have many applications and, for instance, have been employed on GIF cameras and cathodoluminescence systems by Gatan.