Electron microscopy
Bipolar Resistive Switching in Perovskite Insulators
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It is believed that bipolar switching in perovskite insulators, e.g. many perovskite-type transition metal oxides, is attributed to oxygen vacancy migration induced by voltage within extended defects and the metal-to-insulator transition due to redox-process.

Table 1809. Examples of perovskite structures used for bipolar switching.

Perovskite for switching Electrodes Resistance switching ratio Endurance/
 sweep cycles
Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (PCMO) Al and Ti     [1]
SrZrO3 : Cr        [2]
a-SrTiO3   103–104 >106 [3]
LaTiO3   ~100   [4]
YBa2Cu3O6+c (YBCO)       [5]
La0.01Sr0.99TiO3       [6]



[1] Zhi Luo, Guang zhou, Lau, H.K., Chan, P.K.L., Leung, C.W., Investigating the Uneven Current Injection in Perovskite-Based Thin Film Bipolar Resistance Switching Devices by Thermal Imaging, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 50(7), DOI: 10.1109/TMAG.2013.2293780.
[2] Jae-Wan Park, Min Kyu Yang, and Jeon-Kook Lee, Electrode Dependence of Bipolar Resistive Switching in SrZrO3 : Cr Perovskite Film-Based Memory Devices Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 2008 11(8): H226-H229.
[3] Hussein Nili, Sumeet Walia, Sivacarendran Balendhran, Dmitri B. Strukov, Madhu Bhaskaran and Sharath Sriram, Nanoscale Resistive Switching in Amorphous Perovskite Oxide (a-SrTiO3) Memristors, Advanced Functional Materials, 24(43), 6741–6750, 2014.
[4] Xi Lin, Adnan Younis, Xinrun Xiong, Kejun Dong, Dewei Chu and Sean Li, Bipolar resistive switching characteristics in LaTiO3 nanosheets, RSC Adv., 2014, 4, 18127-18131, DOI: 10.1039/C4RA01626B.
[5] T. Plecenik, M. Tomášek, M. Belogolovskii, M. Truchly, M. Gregor, J. Noskovič, M. Zahorana, T. Roch, I. Boylo, M. Španková, Š. Chromik, P. Kúš and A. Plecenik, Effect of crystallographic anisotropy on the resistance switching phenomenon in perovskites, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 056106 (2012).
[6] Xu Ding-Lin, Xiong Ying, Tang Ming-Hua, Zeng Bai-Wen, Xiao Yong-Guang, and Wang Zi-Ping, Reversible alternation between bipolar and unipolar resistive switching in La-SrTiO3 thin films, Chin. Phys. B Vol. 22, No. 11 (2013) 117314.



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