Mean Time to Failure (MTTF) to Electromigration
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
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Assuming a number (n) of devices that fail in operation after successively longer times t1, t2, t3, t4, t5, ... tn. The mean time to failure (MTTF) is given by,

        mean time to failure (MTTF) of a metal wire when subjected to electromigration (EM) effects ----------------------------- [2890a]

This time is different from the median time to failure (t50), also called MTTF.

The MTTF of a metal wire when subjected to electromigration (EM) effects is given by,

        mean time to failure (MTTF) of a metal wire when subjected to electromigration (EM) effects ----------------------------- [2890b]

where,
          A -- The cross-section area-dependent constant,
          J -- The current density,
          N -- The scaling factor, usually set to 2,
          Ea -- The activation energy for electromigration,
          k -- The Boltzmann constant,
          T -- The temperature.

 

 

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