Electron microscopy
Carbon Deposition/Contamination in SOFCs
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The carbon deposition varies depending on the reaction conditions:
        i) Formation of carbidic species (e.g. C bonded to Ni) at temperatures equal to or below 350 °C. This formation is not normally observed in Ni-YSZ SOFCs that operate at higher temperatures.
        ii) Formation of amorphous-carbon and graphitic-carbon layers at temperatures of ~350-600 °C and 600-800 °C, respectively, existing in hydrocarbon-fuelled SOFCs.

Note that carbon deposition in SOFCs can be decreased by increasing the current density or even become zero at a critical current density [1].




[1] D. Singh, E. Hernandez-Pacheco, P. N. Hutton, N. Patel, M. D. Mann, Journal of Power Sources, 2005. 142(1–2): p. 194-199.



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