Ni-Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ)
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
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Ni-YSZ cermet is most commonly used as the anode of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) because it has excellent electrochemical performance in both hydrogen fuel and clean blended synthetic coal syngas mixtures (e.g. 30% H2, 26% H2O, 23% CO, and 21% CO2). However, it still possesses two main problems when using fuels such as natural gas:
The carbon deposition varies depending on the reaction conditions:
Various strategies have been suggested to limit carbon deposition in SOFCs. For instance, direct oxidation of natural gas presented that the carbon deposition on a Ni/YSZ anode can be prevented by increasing the operation current density and lowering the operation temperature [5,6]. However, it is not easy to achieve such operation conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop alternative anode materials that are capable of displaying mixed conductivity when subjected to complex fuels .
Except for Ni/YSZ as the most common anode material in SOFCs, gadolinium doped ceria oxide (GDC), doped SrTiO3 [7,8], and Cu-CeO-YSZ  are also used. Nonetheless, some of them have disadvantages of complicated fabrication processes, low conductivity or poor electrochemical catalyst activity.
 F. N. Cayan, M. Zhi, S. R. Pakalapati, I. Celik, N. Wu, R. Gemmen , Journal of Power
Sources, 2008. 185(2): p. 595-602.
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