Spatial Resolutions of Various Techniques
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -

http://www.globalsino.com/EM/  



 

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.

 

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Figure 3929. Comparison of spatial resolutions between different techniques.

Probe Signal
Technique
Best Spatial Resolution* (nm)
Light Light Bare human eyes 10, 000
Electron Electron Scanning electron microscope (SEM) < 10
Electron Electron Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) 10 - 1000
Electron Electron Convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) 10 - 1000
Electron Electron Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) < 2
Electron Electron Transmission electron microscope (TEM) < 0.1
Electron Electron Scanning TEM (STEM) < 0.1
Electron Electron Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) < 1
Electron Photon Cathodoluminescence (CL)  
Electron Photon Eenergy Dispersive X-ray Spectra ( EDS) on TEM 2 - 20
Electron Photon Eenergy Dispersive X-ray Spectra ( EDS) on SEM 1, 000
Electron Photon X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) 1.5 – 10
Ion Ion Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) < 50
Ion Ion Local electrode atom probe (LEAP) < 0.1
Ion Ion Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) ~ 1, 000
Ion Photon Proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) < 500
Photon Photon X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) < 20
Photon Photon X-ray diffraction (XRD) < 25
Photon Photon X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF)  
Photon Electron Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) < 1, 000
Photon Electron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) 5 – 10
Photon Electron Photoelectron microscopy (PEM or PEEM) < 0.5
Photon Ion Laser microprobe mass analysis (LAMMA) 1, 000

* The best spatial resolution is the spatial resolution limit which can be reached by the modern instruments, but it is probably not the resolution limit of your instrument.

Figures 3928a and 3928b shows the typical sizes of various material defects and the capability of analytical techniques. The lowest levels of the techniques represent their spatial resolutions.

Comparison of various material defects in dimension

Figure 3928a. Typical sizes of various material defects and capability of analytical techniques.

Typical sizes of various material defects and capability of analytical techniques

Figure 3928b. Typical sizes of various material defects and capability of main EM-related analytical techniques.

 

 

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