Techniques for Material Characterizations and Their Capabilities
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -


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Detection sensitivity versus spot size of probe
(a)
Spot size and detection range of various techniques
(b)
Figure 3929. Spot size and detection range of various techniques.

 

Figure 3929. Detection sensitivity versus spot size of probe.

        Table 3929a lists the resolution and sensitivity of techniques for material characterizations. However, each of these values is obtained under ideal conditions, and you will not have all of them optimized at the same time.

Table 3929a. Resolution and sensitivity of techniques for material characterizations. Spatial resolutions are < 5 nm in green, 5 ~ 50 nm in yellow, and > 50 nm in red. Sensitivities are < 0.1% in green, 0.1% ~ 1% in yellow, and > 1% in red.
Technique
Probed depth
Depth resolution
Typical and best spatial resolution*
Sensitivity to components
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAA)
Outer atomic layers
 
--
--
Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)
2 nm
2 nm
Typical: 20-100 nm; Best: < 2 nm
0.1%
Bare human eyes
 
Best: 10, 000 nm
Cathodoluminescence (CL)
10 nm-µm
 
1 µm
ppm
< 1 µm
 
~1 - 20 nm
500 ppm (0.05%) - 1000 ppm 0.1%
< 1 µm ~1 µm
~1 µm
500 ppm (0.05%) - 1000 ppm 0.1%
Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS)
2-100 nm
 
Typical: 1 nm; Best: < 1 nm
1-Few %
Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA)
1 µm
 
0.5 µm
100 ppm
Elastic Recoil Spectrometry (ERS)
1 µm
 
mm
0.01%
Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS)
1 nm-Bulk
 
mm
Few %
Focused ion beam (FIB)
 
5-100 nm
Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS)
100 nm
 
cm
ppt-ppb
Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
5 µm
 
mm
ppt
Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission (ICP-Optical)/ICP optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)
5 µm
 
mm
ppb
Infrared (Spectroscopy) (IR), e.g. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (Spectroscopy) (FTIR)
Few µm
1 µm
15-20 µm; Best: 3 µm
Variable, Best 100 ppm
Ion Scattering Spectrometry (ISS)
3 Å
 
150 µm
50ppm-l%
Light Microscopy
Variable
 
0.2 µm
Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED)
1 nm
 
0.1 mm
Local electrode atom probe (LEAP)
 
Best: < 0.1 nm
Laser lonization Mass Spectrometry (LIMS)
100 nm
 
2 µm
l-100 ppm
Laser Microprobe Mass Analysis (LAMMA)
 
Best: 1, 000 nm
Medium-Energy Ion Scattering (MEIS)
1 nm
 
mm
0.1-10%
Magneto-Optic Kerr Rotation (MOKE)
30 nm
 
0.5 µm
--
Modulation Spectroscopy
1 µm
 
100 µm
ppm
Photoelectron microscopy (PEM or PEEM)
 
Best: < 0.5 nm
Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA)
Bulk
 
ppt-ppm
Neutron diffraction
Bulk
 
Neutron reflectivity
Up to mm
 
--
Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA)
10-100 nm
 
10 µm
10-100 ppm
Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE)
Few µm
 
100 µm
10 ppm
Proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE)
 
Best: < 500 nm
Photoluminescence (PL)
Few µm
 
Few µm
ppb
Raman Spectroscopy (Raman)
Few µm
 
1 µm
Variable
Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS)
2 µm
10 nm
mm; Best: ~ 1 µm
0.01% (100 ppm) - 10%
Reflected High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED)
1 nm
 
0.01-0.02 mm
Surface Analysis by Laser lonization (SALI)
3 Å
 
100 nm
ppb-ppm
Scanning Electron Microscopy/Scanning Electron Microprobe/Secondary Electron Miscroscopy (SEM)
sub µm
 
Typical: 2- 10 nm
Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM)
sub Å
 
1 nm
Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (Dynamic SIMS)
2 nm
10 nm
1 µm; Best: 200 nm

ppb-ppm. E.g., B: 0.002-0.01 ppm; Be, Cr and Mn: 0.002 ppm; P: 0.1 ppm; Cu, Zn, As and Al: 0.2 ppm; Si, Sn and Ge: 0.5 ppm; S, Sb and C: 1.0 ppm; O and N: 10 ppm; H: 100 ppm

Static Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (Static SIMS)
3 Å
 
100 µm
Few %
Sputtered Neutrals Mass Spectrometry/Secondary Neutrals Mass Spectrometry (SNMS)
~2 nm
 
cm
50 ppm
Spark Source Mass Spectrometry (SSMS/Spark Source)
3 µm
 
cm
0.05 ppm
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)
sub Å   1 Å  
Conventional Transmission Electron Microscopy (CTEM)
1 - 200 nm
 
5 nm - µm
Bright field (BF)- Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) and HAADF
100-200 nm
 
Best: < 0.1 nm
Selected Area Diffraction (SAD) in TEM
 
Best: 10 - 1000 nm
Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction (CBED) in TEM
 
Best: 10 - 1000 nm
Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS)
1 nm
 
Typical: mm; Best: < 1 µm
Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE)
1 µm
 
cm
--
Wavelength Dispersive (X-Ray) Spectroscopy (WDS/WDX)
 
0.01 - 0.1%
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)
3 nm
2 nm
Typical: 100–150 µm; Best: 1 µm
0.1 - 1%
X-Ray Photoelectron Diffraction (XPD)
3 nm
 
150 µm
1%
X-RayDiffraction (XRD)
10 µm
 
Typical: mm; Best: < 25 nm
3%
X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XFS)
10 µm
 
mm
0.1%
Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF)
3 nm
1 nm
1 mm - cm
ppb-ppm
X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS)
 
Best: < 20 nm
X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES)
 
Best: 1.5 – 10 nm
* The best spatial resolution is the spatial resolution limit which can be reached by the modern instruments, but it is probably not the resolution limit of your instrument.

Table 3929b. Matrix of microanalysis techniques for material characterizations.

Probe Signal
Electron Ion Photon
Electron Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)
    ✔ Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM)
    ✔ Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM)
    ✔ Auger Electron Diffraction (AED)
    ✔ Angular Distribution Auger Microscopy (ADAM)
    ✔ Kinetic Energy (KE)
    ✔ Cylindrical Mirror Analyzer (CMA)
Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS)
    ✔ Reflection Electron Energy-Loss Microscopy (REELM)
    ✔ Reflected Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (REELS)
    ✔ Extended Energy-Loss Fine Structure (EXELFS)
    ✔ Electron Energy-Loss Fine Structure (EELFS)
    ✔ Valence Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (VEELS)
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
    ✔ Secondary Electron (SE)
    ✔ Backscattered Electron (BSE)
    ✔ Secondary Electron Microscopy with Polarization Analysis (SEMPA)
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
    ✔ Conventional Transmission Electron Microscopy (CTEM)
    ✔ Bright field (BF)- Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)
    ✔ High-angle annular dark- field (HAADF)
    ✔ High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM)
    ✔ Selected Area Diffraction (SAD)
    ✔ Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM)
    ✔ Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction (CBED)
    ✔ Lorentz Transmission Electron Microscopy (LTEM)
  Cathodoluminescence (CL)
Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS or EDX)
Wavelength Dispersive (X-Ray) Spectroscopy (WDS/WDX)
X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES)
Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA)
Ion   Local electrode atom probe (LEAP)
Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS)
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)
    ✔ Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (Dynamic SIMS)
    ✔ Static Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (Static SIMS)
    ✔ SIMS using a Quadruple Mass Spectrometer (Q-SIMS)
    ✔ SIMS using a Magnetic Sector Mass Spectrometer (Magnetic SIMS)
    ✔ Sector SIMS (Magnetic SIMS)
    ✔ SIMS using Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOF-SIMS)
    ✔ Post lonization SIMS (PISIMS)
Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS)
Proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE)
Photon Photoelectron microscopy (PEM or PEEM)
Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS)
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)
Laser Microprobe Mass Analysis (LAMMA) Bare human eyes
X-RayDiffraction (XRD)
    ✔ Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction (GIXD/GIXRD)
    ✔ Double Crystal Diffractometer (DCD)
X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF)
    ✔ X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XFS)
    ✔ Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF)
    ✔ Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TRXFR)
X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS)
Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF)
Fourier Transform Infra-Red (Spectroscopy) (FTIR)

 

        The glossary in Table 3929c lists alphabetically all the techniques used for material characterizations and the subsets of the techniques. The terminology of the techniques are also listed.

Table 3929c. Techniques for material characterizations and their typical capabilities.

Technique
Analyses
Vacuum
Instrument cost per tool
Usage
Specimen examples

Elemental

Chemical state

Phase

Defect

Surface

Imaging

Lattice
Others
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAA)
Yes
Need
Medium
Large surface area
Atomic Absorption (AA)
Vapor Phase Decomposition-Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (VPD-AAS)
Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption (GFAA)
 
Flame Atomic Absorption (FAA)
 
Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)
Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM)
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Need
>$330k
Extensive
All solid, but usually inorganic materials
Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM)
Auger Electron Diffraction (AED)
Angular Distribution Auger Microscopy (ADAM)
Kinetic Energy (KE)
Cylindrical Mirror Analyzer (CMA)
Atom Inelastic Scattering (AIS)
 
Bare human eyes
 
Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller equation (BET)
 
Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Function (BSDF)
Bidirectional Reflective Distribution Function (BRDF)
 
Bidirectional Transmission Distribution Function (BTDF)
 
Cathodoluminescence (CL)
Yes
Yes
 
Yes
Need
<$60k
Not common
All solids, usually semiconductors
Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope (CLSM)
 
Energy Dispersive (X-Ray) Spectroscopy (EDS)/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX)
Yes
Yes
 
Need
$150 - 400k
Medium
All solids with Z> 5
 
Extensive
Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS)
High-Resolution Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS)
Yes
Yes
 
Need
>$330k
Not common
All solids
Reflected Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (REELS)
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Need
Not common
All solids
Reflection Electron Energy-Loss Microscopy (REELM)
 
Low-Energy Electron-Loss Spectroscopy (LEELS)
 
Parallel (Detection) Electron Energy-Loss Spectrscopy (PEELS)
 
Extended Energy-Loss Fine Structure (EXELFS)
 
Electron Energy-Loss Fine Structure (EELFS)
 
Core Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (CEELS)
 
Valence Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (VEELS)
 
Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS)
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Need
>$500k
Medium
All solid thin films
Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA)
Yes
Yes
 
Need
>$330k
Medium
All solids
Elastic Recoil Spectrometry (ERS)
 
Yes
Need
Not common
Contain H
Hydrogen Forward Scattering (HFS)
 
Hydrogen Recoil Spectrometry (HRS)
 
Forward Recoil Spectrometry (FRS)
 
Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA)
 
Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD)
 
Particle Recoil Detection (PRD)
 
Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS)
Surface Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (SEXAFS)
Yes
Yes
 
Need
Not common
Surface & adsorbate
Near-Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS)
Yes
 
X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES)
 
Need or no need
All solids
X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS)
 
Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR)
 
Orientation ordering, local geometric packing of atoms        
Focused ion beam (FIB)
Yes
 
Need
> $ 1M
Extensive
All solids
Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS)
Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry using a Quadruple Mass Analyser (GDQMS)
Yes
 
Need
>$330k

Medium

Sample forms electrode
Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)
Yes
 
Need
$60-330k
Extensive
All solids
Laser Ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS)
 
Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission (ICP-Optical)/ICP optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)
Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)
Yes
 
Need
<$60k
Extensive
All solids
Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy (IETS)
 
Infrared (Spectroscopy) (IR)
Fourier Transform Infra-Red (Spectroscopy) (FTIR)
Yes
Yes
 
Yes
No need
$60-330k
Extensive
All solids
Gas Chromatography FTIR (GC-FTIR)
 
 
Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR)
 
Reflection Absorption (Spectroscopy) (RA)
 
Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRAS)
 
Ion Scattering Spectrometry (ISS)
Yes
 
Need
Not common
All elements
Light Microscopy
Yes
Yes
 
Yes
No need
<$60k
Extensive
All materials
Low-Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS)
Resonance Charge Exchange (RCE)
 
Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED)
Yes
Yes
 
Need
Medium
Single crystal
Local electrode atom probe (LEAP)
 
Laser lonization Mass Spectrometry (LIMS)
Yes
Yes
 
Need
>$330k
Medium
All elements
Laser Microprobe Mass Analysis (LAMMA)
 
Laser Microprobe Mass Spectrometry (LAMMS)
 
Laser lonization Mass Analysis (LIMA)
Nonresonant Multi-Photon lonization (NRMPI)
 
Medium-Energy Ion Scattering Spectrometry (MEISS)
 
Medium-Energy Ion Scattering (MEIS)
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Need
>$330k
Not common
Normally single crystals
Magneto-Optic Kerr Rotation (MOKE)
Surface Magneto-Optic Kerr Rotation (SMOKE)
Yes
 
Yes
No need
<$60k
Medium
Magnetic films
Modulation Spectroscopy
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Yes
No need
$60-330k
Not common
All solids, usually semiconductors
Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)
 
Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS)
 
Photoelectron microscopy (PEM or PEEM)
 
X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES)
 
Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA)
Yes
 
No need
$60-330k
Not common
Trace metals
Neutron diffraction
Yes
Yes
 
No need
Not common
Crystals
Neutron Inelastic Scattering (NIS)
 
Neutron reflectivity
 
Yes
No need
Not common
Flat polymer films
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
Magic-Angle Spinning (MAS)
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
All solid; not all elements
Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA)
Yes
 
Need
Not common
Materials with Z<21
Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES)
 
Optical Scatterometry
 
Yes
No need
<$60k
Not common in general, but common in semiconductors
Flat smooth films
Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS)
 
Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE)
Yes
Yes
 
Need
>$330k
Not common
All solids
Proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE)
 
Hydrogen/Helium Induced X-ray Emission (HIXE)
 
Photoluminescence (PL)
Photoluminescence Excitation (PLE)
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Yes
No need
<$60k
Medium
All solids, usually semiconductors
Photoreflectance (PR)
Electron Beam Electroreflectance (EBER)
 
Reflection Difference Spectroscopy (RDS)
 
Raman Spectroscopy (Raman)
Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy (FT Raman)
 
Raman Scattering (RS)
Yes
Yes
 
Yes
No need
$60-330k
Medium
All solids
Resonant Raman Scattering (RRS)
 
Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS)
 
Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)
 
Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS)
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Need or no need
>$330k
Medium
All materials
High-Energy Ion Scattering (HEIS)
 
Reflected High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED)
Scanning Reflection Electron Microscopy (SREM)
Yes
Yes
 
Need
Medium
Single crystal
Surface Analysis by Laser lonization (SALI)
Post-Ionization Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (PISIMS)
Yes
Yes
 
Need
>$330k
Not common
Most inorganic
Multi-Photon Nonresonant Post lonization (MPNRPI)
 
Multiphoton Resonant Post lonization (MRRPI)
 
Resonant Post lonization (RPI)
 
Multi-Photon lonization (MPI)
 
Single-Photon lonization (SPI)
 
Sputter-Initiated Resonance lonization Spectroscopy (SIRIS)
 
Surface Analysis by Resonant lonization Spectroscopy (SARIS)
 
Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOFMS)
 
Scanning Electron Microscopy/Scanning Electron Microprobe/Secondary Electron Miscroscopy (SEM)
Secondary Electron (SE)
Yes
Yes
 
Need
$60-330k
Extensive
Conductors, metal-coated insulators
Backscattered Electron (BSE)
Secondary Electron Microscopy with Polarization Analysis (SEMPA)
Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM)
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
No need
$60-330k
Medium
All solids
Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) or scanning near-field thermal microscopy (SNThM)
Constant current SNThM
                       
Constant temperature SNThM
                       
Scanning thermal profiler (SThP)
                       
Tunneling thermometer (TT)
                       
Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM)
Direct mode SECM
                       
Feedback mode SECM
                       
Generation/collection mode SECM
                       
Scanning reference electrode technique (SRET)
                       
Scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET)
                       
Scanning photoelectrochemical microscopy (SPECM)
                       
Scanning electrochemical induced desorption (SECMID)
                       
Scanning micropipette microscopy (SMM)
Scanning micropipette molecule microscopy (SMMM)
                       
Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM)
                       
Scanning of near-field acoustic microscopy (SNAM)
                       
Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM)
Contact mode (CM) or atomic force microscopy (AFM)
                       
Electric force microscopy (EFM) or scanning maxwell stress microscopy (SMM)
                       
DC (direct current) - Magnetic force microscopy (MFM)
                       
AC (alternating current) - Magnetic force microscopy (MFM)
                       
AC - Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM)
 
DC - Constant height AFM
                       
DC - Constant force AFM
                       
DC - Lateral force microscopy (LFM) or friction force microscopy (FFM)
                       
DC - Scanning chemical force microscopy (SCFM)
                       
DC - Conducting atomic force microscopy (C-AFM)
                       
DC - Scanning voltage microscopy (SVM)
                       
DC - Scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM)
                       
DC - Contact scanning capacitance microscopy (CM-SCM)
                       
DC - Contact error AFM
                       
AC - Contact EFM
                       
AC - Atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM)
                       
AC - Young's modulus microscopy (YMM) or force modulation microscopy (FMM)
                       
Tapping mode AFM (TM-AFM) or intermittent contact (IC-AFM)
                       
TM - Phase imaging AFM
                       
TM error AFM
                       
TM scanning capacitance microscopy (TM-SCM)
                       
Non-contact mode SFM (NC-SFM)
                       
Scanning surface potential microscopy (SSPM)
                       
Scanning kelvin microscopy (SKM) or Kelvin probe microscopy (KPM)
                       
Non-contact scanning capacitance microscopy (NC-SCM)
                       
van der Waals force microscopy (VDWFM) or scanning attractive mode force microscopy (SAFM)
                       
Frequency modulation scanning force microscopy (FM-SFM)
                       
Dissipation force microscopy
                       
Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) or near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM)
Shear force microscopy (ShFM)
                       
Aperture SNOM (ASNOM)
                       
Transmission ASNOM (T-ASNOM)
                       
Collection ASNOM (C-ASNOM) or reflection mode
                       
Emission ASNOM (E-ASNOM) or luminescence mode
                       
Non-aperture SNOM (NA-SNOM)
                       
Evanescent field SNOM (EF-SNOM) or photon scanning tunneling microscopy (PSTM) or evanescent field optical microscopy (EFOM)
                       
Scanning near-field plasmon microscopy (SNPM) or scanning plasmon near-field microscopy (SPNM)
                       
Scanning near-field infrared microscopy (SNIM)
                       
Scanning near-field Raman microscopy (SNRM)
                       
Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS)
I(z) spectroscopy or Local barrier height spectroscopy (LBHS)
                       
I(V) spectroscopy
                       
Spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy (SPSTS)
                       
Phonon spectroscopy by inelastic electron tunneling (IET)
                       
Photoassisted tunneling spectroscopy (SFES)
                       
Tunneling-induced luminescence spectroscopy (TILS)
                       
Ballistic electron emission spectroscopy (BEES)
                       
Scanning field emission spectroscopy (SFES)
                       
Scanning force spectroscopy (SFS)
Force-distance curves
                       
Amplitude-distance curves
                       
Phase-distance curves
                       
Frequency-distance curves
                       
Kelvin probe spectroscopy
                       
Scanning capacitance spectroscopy
                       
Full-resonance spectroscopy (FRS)
                       
AFAM resonance spectroscopy (AFAM-RS)
                       
Scanning spreading resistance spectroscopy (SSRS)
                       
Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) or near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM)
Scanning near-field luminescence spectroscopy (SNLS)
                       
Scanning near-field Raman spectroscopy (SNRS)
                       
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)
Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (Dynamic SIMS)
Yes
Yes
 
Need
>$330k
Extensive
All solids, mostly semiconductors
Static Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (Static SIMS)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Need
>$330k
Medium
All, but mostly polymer
SIMS using a Quadruple Mass Spectrometer (Q-SIMS)
SIMS using a Magnetic Sector Mass Spectrometer (Magnetic SIMS)
Sector SIMS (Magnetic SIMS)
SIMS using Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOF-SIMS)
Post lonization SIMS (PISIMS)
Sputtered Neutrals Mass Spectrometry/Secondary Neutrals Mass Spectrometry (SNMS)
Direct Bombardment Electron Gas SNMS (SNMSd)
Yes
 
Need
$60-330k
Medium
Flat conductors
Spark Source Mass Spectrometry (SSMS/Spark Source)
Yes
 
Need
Medium
Sample forms electrode
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)
Constant current STM
    Yes Yes Yes     No need
$60-330k
Not common
Conductors
Constant height STM
       
Current imaging tunneling spectroscopy (CITS)
 
     
Electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (ESTM)
 
     
Scanning noise microscopy (SNM)
 
     
Scanning tunneling potentiometry (STP)
 
     
Scanning noise potentiometry (SNP)
 
     
Alternating current STM (ACSTM)
 
     
Scanning chemical potential microscopy (SCPM)
 
     
Scanning optical absorption microscopy (SOAM)
 
     
Spin polarized STM (SPSTM)
 
     
Ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM)
 
     
Photon emission STM (PESTM) or scanning tunneling optical microscopy (STOM)
 
     
Photon assisted STM (PASTM) or laser assisted STM (LASTM)
 
     
Scanning field emission microscopy (SFEM)
 
     
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Conventional Transmission Electron Microscopy (CTEM)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Need
$ 1 -3 M
Not common for most materials, but extensive for nano-structures and defects
All solids with thicknesses of less than 200 nm
Bright field (BF)- Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Yes
 
High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM)
Yes
Selected Area Diffraction (SAD)
 
Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM)
 
Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction (CBED)
 
Lorentz Transmission Electron Microscopy (LTEM)
 
Thermal Energy Atom Scattering (TEAS)
 
Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)
 
Tandem Scanning Reflected-Light Microscope (TSRLM)
 
Tandem Scanning Reflected-Light Microscope (TSM)
 
Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS)
Yes
Yes
 
Need
Not common
All solids
Molecular Photoelectron Spectroscopy (MPS)
 
Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE)
 
Yes
No need
$60-330k
Not common
Flat thin films
Wavelength Dispersive (X-Ray) Spectroscopy (WDS/WDX)
Yes
 
Need
<$60k
Not common
All solids
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)
Yes
Yes
 
Need
>$330k
Extensive
All solids
Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA)
X-Ray Photoelectron Diffraction (XPD)
Yes
Yes
Yes
 
Need
>$330k
Not common
Single crystal
Photoelectron Diffraction (PHD)
 
Kinetic Energy (KE)
 
X-RayDiffraction (XRD)
Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction (GIXD/GIXRD)
Yes
 
No need
$60-330k
Extensive
Crystals
Double Crystal Diffractometer (DCD)
X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF)
X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XFS)
Yes
 
No need
$60-330k
Extensive
All solids
Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF)
Yes
Yes
 
Need
>$330k
Not common
Trace heavy metals
Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TRXFR)
 
X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS)
 
X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES)
 
Vapor Phase Decomposition Total X-Ray Fluorescence (WD-TXRF)
 

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