This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.
Three-dimensional (3D) tomography imaging techniques have widely been applied in, for instance, investigation of device architectures in modern integrated circuits. The method to obtain 3D CTEM and STEM images is called electron tomography. In this method, a number of different projections (images) of the TEM specimen are recorded and then these images are mathematically recombined to form a 3D representation of the specimen. There are mainly three ways to obtain TEM tomography images:
i) Tilt tomography;
ii) Single particle analysis;
iii) Confocal TEM/STEM.
Recording atomic-resolved images of small clusters is not an easy task, and the 3-D (three-dimensional) determination of atomic structure of nanoclusters is even more challenging. The intrinsic instability of the clusters limits the duration of the TEM observation and the electron beam dosage that can be used. To obtain 3-D information, one needs to take focal series of TEM images in combination with exit wave image reconstructions. [1,2] This method still requires that the nanoclusters stay on the support more than tens of seconds during observation, but this is not applicable for most of small clusters under normal imaging conditions. Electron tomography is capable for 3-D information but again requires a series of images to be taken in different specimen orientations. [3,4]
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