Success of EM Experiments
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.



The degree and amount of the information revealed by electron microscopes (EMs) mainly depends on six factors:
         i) The resolving power of the microscope (e.g. usually < 0.3 nm for TEM);
         ii) The energy spread of the electron beam;
         iii) The quality of the EM sample (e.g. the cleanness and thickness of the specimen for TEM);
         iv) The knowledge of electron-matter interaction and electron optics;
         v) The operation skills of EMs;
         vi) The composition and stability of the specimen.
i) and ii) depend mainly on how thick your pocket is, meaning the more money you spend, the better the microscope parameters; iii) - v) depends on your experimental skill and background; while vi) depends on your luck and/or choice of experimental system.

Since some EM operation tips from experiences and theoretical understandings are very tricky, and thus can hardly be described in words, for instance, in literature or through emails, it is suggested to visit experienced laboratories to ask for assistance.

In aberration-corrected EMs (electron microscopes) a combination of hexapole or octupole lenses are used in a aberration corrector which lacks rotational (circular) symmetry and thus doesn’t have to have a positive spherical aberration like conventional, round magnetic lenses.





The book author (Yougui Liao) welcomes your comments, suggestions, and corrections, please click here for submission. If you let book author know once you have cited this book, the brief information of your publication will appear on the “Times Cited” page.