Wave Properties of Charged Particles
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


High-energy charged particles, e.g. incident electrons in electron microscopes (EMs) and Ga ions in focused ion beam (FIB), behave sometimes like particles, sometimes like waves. Even though those charged particles have both wave and particle properties, the information transfer properties of the lens can only be understood in the model of waves. Therefore, the EMs and FIB can only be described within the framework of wave optics.




The book author (Yougui Liao) welcomes your comments, suggestions, and corrections, please click here for submission. If you let book author know once you have cited this book, the brief information of your publication will appear on the “Times Cited” page.