XRD Analysis of Particles and Nanostructures
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


The method of powder X-ray diffraction works best for micrometer-sized crystals and becomes less useful for crystals in the nanometer range [1] because the kinematic X-ray diffraction from perfect crystal lattices shows essentially delta functions for the line profiles of the individual reflections. However, the situation for smaller crystals becomes rather complex and the Bragg peaks may shift simultaneously as well as get asymmetrically or even anisotropically broadened [2], especially the powder X-ray diffraction for nanocrystals become less and less characteristic because more and more Bragg peaks overlap due to the peak broadening [3] and the intensity diminishes until they become difficult to distinguish from the background. Furthermore, higher spatial resolution is needed because the surface and near surface regions of nanocrystals are highly distorted or relaxed with respect to the bulk crystal structure. For instance, the grains of many crystalline materials, e.g. high Tc superconductors, are too small in size and are too imperfect in periodicity for an X-ray single crystal analysis to be performed, but are applicable for electron-microscopic (EM) observations.





[1] J. A. López Pérez, M. A. López Quintela, J. Mira, J. Rivas, and S. W. Charles. Advances in the preparation of magnetic nanoparticles by the microemulsion method. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 101(41):8045 - 8047, 1997.
[2] Ungár, T.: Microstructure of nanocrystalline materials studied by powder diffraction. Z. Kristallogr. Suppl. 23 (2006) 313–318.
[3] Pinna, N.: X-Ray diffraction from nanocrystals. Progr. Colloid. Polym. Sci. 130 (2005) 29–32.




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