Electron Ronchigram Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) in STEM
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Two main contrast transfer functions (CTFs) are very useful concepts in electron microscopes:
        i) The bright field CTF in conventional TEM.
        ii) The electron Ronchigram CTF (in STEM) derived by Cowley. This concept is inherently more complicated since it is not isoplanatic.

The intensity (I(k)) of Ronchigram pattern in STEM mode is given by (see page3590),

         The intensity (I(k)) of the Ronchigram pattern -------------------- [2754]

         h -- The higher-differential term of the wave aberration function.

And, the term The intensity (I(k)) of the Ronchigram pattern represents the contrast transfer function (CTF).

Figure 2754 shows the schematic comparison between contrast transfer functions (CTFs) for a parallel-beam CTEM and a STEM. For TEM imaging, the higher frequencies should be excluded by a proper objective aperture marked by the red arrow because they introduce contrast reversals. For STEM imaging, a proper probe-forming aperture should be applied to match the need of the spatial frequency marked by the green arrow.

contrast transfer function (CTF) for: (a) A conventional, parallel beam, CTEM and (b) A STEM

Figure 2754. Schematic illustration of contrast transfer function (CTF) for: (a) A parallel-beam CTEM and (b) A STEM.




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