Pulsed Thermally Induced Voltage Alteration (TIVA)
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
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This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Pulsed TIVA is essentially an extension of thermally induced voltage alteration (TIVA) technique. The major modification in pulsed TIVA setup is that a pulsed laser with a lock-in phase detection device is used to help improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and to help remove TIVA artifacts [1]. By employing a solid immersion lens (SIL), higher magnification and higher resolution imaging with higher signal accuracy can further be obtained [2].

The sensitivity of defect isolations in TIVA measurements is sometimes affected by signal streaking. For instance, the streaking in the TIVA image shown in Figure 2829 (a) made it difficult to isolate the actual part of the defective circuitry. In order to obtain a better defect isolation, Pulsed TIVA was employed and then, the spots in the circle in Figure 2829 (b) directed the defective location accurately. In this measurement, the laser was pulsed and phase lock detection was applied so that the steaks were effectively reduced; therefore, the sensitive defect isolation was enabled.

Streaks formed in conventional TIVA image, and Streaking removal by using a pulsed TIVA setup

Figure 2829. (a) Streaks formed in conventional TIVA image, and (b) Streaking was removed using a pulsed TIVA setup. Adapted from [3]









[1] Phang JCH, et.al, "Resolution and Sensitivity Enhancements of Scanning Optical Microscopy Techniques for Integrated Circuit Failure Analysis", Int Symp Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA 2009), 6-10 Jul 09, pg 11-18, 2009.
[2] A.C.T. Quah, et.al, “Combining Refractive Solid Immersion Lens and Pulsed Laser Induced Techniques for Effective Defect Localization on Microprocessors”, Proc International Symposium for Testing & Failure Analysis 2008, pages 402-406.
[3] Ravikumar V K, Ho M Y, Goruganthu R R, Phoa S L, Narang V, Chin J M, Combining High Resolution Pulsed TIVA and Nanoprobing Techniques to identify Drive Strength issues in Mixed Signal Circuits, 2010 17th IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA).




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