Charged Defects and Deep Level Traps in Materials
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Copper migrating into silicon active areas can form deep level traps, causing a dramatic decrease of minority carrier lifetime.

In Hf0.5Ti0.5O2, the Ti ions might serve as deep electron traps, resulting in localized levels in the energy gap and thus contributing to charged defects at high Ti concentrations.



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